ICYMI: CCIA Releases White Paper, Copyright Reform for a Digital Economy

On August 25, 2015, the Computer and Communications Industry Association (CCIA) released its White Paper, Copyright Reform for a Digital Economy.  The report notes that the House Judiciary Committee began comprehensive copyright review in 2013 and points out that new technology has changed the way creative industries and communication operate.  For example, the growth of the Internet has lowered the cost of distribution and “radically changed the economics of scholarly communications and other educational resources.  This, in turn, has allowed open access business models to flourish in these markets.”  The report points out the importance of balance and “any copyright reform should acknowledge the significance of doctrines ensuring copyright flexibility, particularly limitations and exceptions like the fair use doctrine and first sale.”

Among the highlights, the report points out:

The principle of copyright remains an important tool in the Government’s toolbox to promote scientific, cultural and economic progress, but in current practice, the complex, opaque, and highly concentrated U.S. system is increasingly incapable of facilitating certain socially and economically desirable uses.  Easily navigated only by the most experienced corporate actors, the credibility of the copyright system is being tested as it leaves ‘”consumers and other private citizens…increasingly frustrated.”

With respect to fair use, the report cites studies done on the fair use economy pointing out the significant role industries relying on limitations and exceptions have played in growing the US economy.  The report continues,

[P]rotection exceeding the amount necessary to incentivize innovation represents a deadweight loss to the economy.  Limitations and exceptions help minimize the deadweight loss, and several, such as the fair use doctrine, provide breathing room for new innovations.

The report goes on to point out that fair use is not limited to the technology sector and has been successfully relied upon by “theatre producers, artists, movie studios . . . patent lawyers, rock bands and an NFL football team.”  In other words, as pointed out in the Fair Use Fundamentals infographic created for last year’s Fair Use Week,* fair use is relied upon by everyone.  While the report notes the importance of fair use, it does not recommend reform of the doctrine but instead cautions Congress to consider the

other reforms [that] may affect the fair use doctrine, and potential effects on fair use should be considered in any reform.  For example, increasing statutory damages may deter socially desirable fair uses, and allowing DMCA abuses to continue unchecked may prevent fair use criticism, commentary and political speech.  Because fair use is so integral to the fabric of the Copyright Act, it must be a central consideration in any legislative effort.

In addition to fair use, the report also emphasizes another important limitation in copyright law: the first sale doctrine.

With respect to other areas under consideration for copyright reform, the report points out that safe harbors in the online environment have ensured predictability, but suggests that safe harbors could be strengthened.  It also points out that the DMCA takedown process can be misused.

The report also points out the chilling effect of statutory damages which has led to copyright trolling.  It notes, “regardless of the propriety of the remedy, however, to whatever extent statutory damages deter misbehavior, they also deter investment by creating substantial uncertainty and risk.”  The report cites several suggestions by scholars to reduce statutory damages and also pointing to a proposal

to generally remit statutory damages in cases where defendants can demonstrate a reasonable good faith belief that their activity was a fair use (or perhaps covered by any defense).  Section 504(c)(2) already has exactly this provision, but limits it to nonprofit educational institutions, libraries, archives and public broadcasters.  Because deterrence is inappropriate where a defendant had a reasonable good faith belief that their conduct was non-infringing, this provision could be extended to all good faith actors.  In the rare case where this might leave plaintiffs under-compensated, they could still obtain actual damages and injunctions.

The report also points out that international agreements can constrain reforms.  For example,

extraordinarily long copyright terms are also a result of international agreements, which have extended the copyright term to last for the life of the author, plus an additional 50 years (in the case of the Berne Convention and TRIPS) or the life of the author plus an additional 70 years (in the case of the free trade agreements).  This exacerbated the orphan works problem while diminishing the ability of artists to make productive uses of older works, e.g., new performances of older plays.  The Supreme Court has validated the most recent extension in Eldred v. Ashcroft, notwithstanding economic studies showing that extending the term of protection from 56 years to life plus 50 or 70 years does not measurably incentivize additional creative activity.

It is no exaggeration to say that international copyright treaty obligations have contributed to a legitimacy crisis in the contemporary copyright system.  Survey data suggests there is a declining public respect for copyright.  Terms extending well over a century have been the source of high-profile disputes casting copyright in a poor light, and when combined with the absence of formalities, exceptionally long terms have proven to be a significant problem for researchers, historians and preservationists, among others.

Another problem the report highlights i the relationship between contract and copyright, where license terms may override limitations and exceptions.  The report points to proposals against “contracting out” in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia and concludes that “effective copyright law reform must recognize that Congress’s intentions can be subverted through contract, and that licensing agreements between competitors can give rise to substantial market power.”  Likewise, the report notes that “substantial aspects of copyright reform could be rendered largely irrelevant if rightsholders can control all uses via TPMs.”

The entire report is well worth a read.

*Fair Use Week 2016 will take place from February 22-26, 2016.  For more information please visit www.fairuseweek.org*


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New Advocacy and Policy Update: August 14, 2015

A new ARL Advocacy and Policy Update, covering mid-June to mid-August is now available here.  Prior updates can be accessed here.

The summary and contents from the current Advocacy and Policy Update are reproduced below:


The US House of Representatives began the summer recess on July 30th, and the US Senate adjourned on August 6th with both reconvening on September 8th. September and October promise to be very busy months as both chambers must act on the FY 2017 appropriations bills, highway trust fund, debt ceiling, and many other issues. It is also hoped that there will be a deal to increase the spending limits under sequestration, which higher education institutions and others have long advocated for.

Much of the activity related to copyright has centered around the Copyright Office. Congressional offices continue to explore and discuss ways to modernize the Copyright Office, including various proposals to move the Copyright Office out of the Library of Congress. Additionally, the Copyright Office has issued notices of inquiries that relate to orphan works, mass digitization, visual works, and extended collective licensing.

There have been positive developments with respect to open access, open educational resources, and open data. The Obama Administration released science and technology priorities for FY 2017, which note that “preserving and improving access to scientific collections, research data, other results of federally funded research, open datasets and open education resources should be a priority for agencies.” The FASTR Bill to enhance public access to research was approved unanimously by the US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.

Privacy and surveillance concerns continue as Congress is considering cybersecurity legislation that raises serious issues for privacy and civil liberties. Litigation around net neutrality is in full swing, with the briefs of telecommunications companies opposing the FCC’s net neutrality rules filed in July.

Finally, ARL continues to promote a simple and quick ratification of the Marrakesh Treaty. Currently, 10 countries have ratified the Treaty, and 10 more are needed for it to enter into force.


Copyright and Intellectual Property

  • Proposal to “Modernize” the Copyright Office
  • Copyright Office Notice of Inquiry on Visual Works
  • Copyright Office Notice of Inquiry on Mass Digitization and Extended Collective Licensing
  • House Judiciary Committee’s Copyright Review

Open Access, Open Educational Resources, and Open Data

  • Obama Administration Releases Science and Technological Priorities for FY 2017
  • Coalition Calls on White House to Open Up Access to Federally Funded Educational Resources
  • FASTR Bill to Enhance Public Access to Research Approved by US Senate Committee
  • National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Update Appropriations

Draft Bill Would Eliminate NHPRC

Privacy and Surveillance

  • Cybersecurity Legislation
  • Electronic Communications Privacy Act Reform


  • Net Neutrality Litigation

International Treaties

  • Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
  • Marrakesh Treaty
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Analysis of August 2015 Leaked TPP Text on Copyright, ISP and General Provisions

The United States is currently negotiating a large, regional free trade agreement with eleven other countries: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam. On August 5, 2015, Knowledge Ecology International published a new leak of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement’s (TPP) negotiating text for the intellectual property chapter. This text, dated May 11, 2015 reflects the state of the negotiations prior to the recent Ministerial meeting in Hawaii (and new agreements may have been made during the recent TPP meeting). This latest leak reveals some substantial changes from last year’s October leak of the text by WikiLeaks (which revealed the state of negotiations as of May 14, 2014).

In general, the more recent text shows some improvement over last year’s text, although serious problems remain.


Copyright Term

The copyright term has not yet been agreed to, and it has widely been considered to be a political decision to be determined by the trade ministers. Currently, there is a wide range of proposals available for copyright term, ranging from life plus 50 years, to life plus 70 years, to life plus 100 years when based on the life of an author. For corporate works, there are four proposed terms of 50, 70, 75 or 95 years. These are wide ranging proposals and longer copyright terms exacerbate the orphan works problem and hamper the public domain. The potential for excessively long copyright terms that far exceed international standards is one of the largest remaining flaws in the agreement from the perspective of access to knowledge and information. Countries should resist copyright term extension, particularly given the lack of evidence supporting these extensive copyright terms.

Japan’s proposal, which appeared in the previous leak, similar to the Berne rule of shorter term remains. This rule would essentially allow parties to limit the term of protection provided to authors of another party to the term provided under that party’s legislation. For example, if the final TPP text required a period of copyright protection of life plus fifty years, the United States would not be required to provide its period of life plus seventy years to authors in New Zealand, if New Zealand continued to provide a term of life plus fifty years. The United States does not currently implement the Berne rule of shorter term.


In last year’s leaked text, Article QQ.G.X appeared for the first time and was unbracketed, signaling agreement by the TPP negotiating parties. This provision read, “No Party may subject the enjoyment and exercise of the rights of authors, performers and producers of phonograms provided for in this Chapter to any formality.” As noted in last year’s analysis by ARL, the language was potentially problematic for countries wanting to re-introduce formalities for copyright protections granted that go beyond minimum international standards. The Register of Copyrights Maria Pallante, for example, proposed the re-introduction of formalities for the last twenty years of copyright protection in the United States, which would have violated the TPP if a period of life plus seventy years was also agreed to.

Although this provision was unbracketed in the 2014 text, it appears from the current leak that this ban on formalities has been removed. The removal of this language is significant as it would not only permit the reintroduction of formalities for the last twenty years of copyright term in the United States, but also allows for formalities in other areas. For example, formalities can be required in order to be eligible for certain remedies for copyright infringement. It could be used to address the orphan works problem by establishing registries in order to receive damages or an injunction for works that are still protected under copyright in the United States, but go beyond the terms required by international law. Footnote 160 in the current leak appears to allow such arrangements, providing that “For greater certainty, in implementing QQ.G.6, nothing prevents a Party from promoting certainty for the legitimate use and exploitation of works, performances and phonograms during their terms of protection, consistent with QQ.G.16 [limitations and exceptions] and that Party’s international obligations.”

Limitations and Exceptions

The language from the previous leak on limitations and exceptions, including a reference to the Marrakesh Treaty, remains in the text and is particularly welcome, given that it has not been included in previous US free trade agreements. The language provides that

Each Party shall endeavor to achieve an appropriate balance in its copyright and related rights system inter alia by means of limitations or exceptions that are consistent with Article QQ.G.16.1, including those for the digital environment, giving due consideration to legitimate purposes such as, but not limited to: criticism; comment; news reporting; teaching, scholarship, research and other similar purposes; and facilitating access to published works for persons who are blind, visually impaired or otherwise print disabled.[164] [165] 

[164] As recognized by the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled (June 27, 2013). The Parties recognize that some Parties facilitate the availability of works in accessible formats for beneficiaries beyond the requirements of the Marrakesh Treaty.

[165] For purposes of greater clarity, a use that has commercial aspects may in appropriate circumstances be considered to have a legitimate purpose under Article QQ.G.16.3

Footnote 164, which references the Marrakesh Treaty, now includes an additional sentence that recognizes that some parties provide for limitations and exceptions for beneficiaries that go beyond the requirements of the Marrakesh Treaty. Currently, ten parties have ratified the Marrakesh Treaty and an additional ten are required for entry into force. Singapore and Mexico, both negotiating parties to the TPP, have already ratified the Marrakesh Treaty, and Canada has introduced a bill paving the way for implementation of the Treaty. A number of other TPP negotiating parties have signed the treaty, signaling an intention to ratify, including Australia, Chile, Peru, and the United States.

While inclusion of language on limitations and exceptions is a welcome addition to the agreement, this provision should be strengthened by making mandatory the obligation to achieve balance rather than using the term “shall endeavor,” as the Library Copyright Alliance pointed out in an August 2012 letter to the United States Trade Representative.

Technological Protection Measures

Last year’s leak revealed language that permits parties to provide limitations and exceptions to technological protection measures “in order to enable non-infringing uses where there is an actual or likely adverse impact of those measures on non-infringing uses.” The leak also revealed that the three-year rulemaking process to create these limitations and exceptions, as earlier proposed by the United States, was removed. The current leak maintains this language, but drops the reference to the three-step test (though the language on limitations and exceptions remains the same) and also eliminates Chile’s proposal that the process for establishing limitations and exceptions requires consideration of “evidence presented by beneficiaries with respect to the necessity of the creation of such exception and limitation.”

Overall, this language is an improvement over the United States’ initial proposal from 2011 regarding technological protection measures, which only allowed for a closed list of specific limitations and exceptions while others could be added through a three-year rulemaking process, because it would allow for new permanent limitations and exceptions to allow for circumvention of TPMs. Such permanent limitations and exceptions could be granted for cell-phone unlocking. However, the language does assume that parties need to provide for limitations and exceptions, even for non-infringing uses.

Article QQ.G.10(c) maintains the unfortunate language that “a violation of a measure implementing this paragraph is independent of any infringement that might occur under the Party’s law on copyright and related rights.” Establishing that the circumvention of a technological protection measure is independent of any copyright infringement negatively impacts legitimate, non-infringing circumvention. It is unfortunate that this language not only remains in the text, but is unbracketed, meaning that countries have agreed to this flawed provision.

Internet Service Providers

The text on Internet Service Providers appears in an addendum and contains important caveats that the text is “Without Prejudice” and “Parties are still considering this proposal and reserve their position on the entire section.” Thus, even where language is unbracketed, it does not necessarily reflect agreement.

The current leak reveals that the text contains significant flexibilities that did not previously exist. For example, the United States and Canada have proposed language that would continue to allow Canada’s notice-and-notice system, rather than require the United States notice-and-takedown system. It appears to protect Canada’s system as one that “forward[s] notices of alleged infringement” but requires that the system exist in the Party “upon the date of entry into force of this Agreement.” If this language is agreed to, it could therefore be conceivable that other parties to the TPP could implement systems of notice-and-notice, provided that they do so before entry into force of the TPP. Similarly, footnote 299 appears to allow Japan to maintain its safe harbor framework.

In last year’s leak, Peru had proposed a footnote that now appears in the general text of the section on ISPs. This paragraph now reads, “It is understood that the failure of an Internet service provider to qualify for the limitations in paragraph 1 does not itself result in liability. Moreover, this article is without prejudice to the availability of other limitations and exceptions to copyright, or any other defences under a Party’s legal system.” This language provides a helpful clarification and clearly establishes the language as a safe harbor, not as a direct creation of liability where an ISP does not qualify for the limitations set forth under the agreement.

General Provisions

In addition to improvements in the copyright section, there appears to be agreement on positive language regarding general provisions. Many of the positive proposals regarding general provisions in last year’s leak were bracketed and not yet agreed to.

The objectives now read:

The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare, and to a balance of rights and obligations.

Additionally, principles that had previously been agreed to by six parties now appear unbracketed and specifically reference the public interest and address the need to prevent abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders:

1.  Parties may, in formulating or amending their laws and regulations, adopt measures necessary to protect health and nutrition, and to promote the public interest in sectors of vital importance to their socio­economics and technological development, provided that such measures are consistent with the provisions of this Chapter.

2.  Appropriate measures, provided that they are consistent with the provisions of this Chapter, may be needed to prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders or the resort to practices which unreasonably restrain trade or adversely affect the international transfer of technology.

There is also new language, which appears to be mostly agreed to, that promotes the dissemination of knowledge and information. In addition, Chile and Canada have proposed language, which the United States and Japan oppose, emphasizing the importance of the public domain. This article, “Understandings in respect of this Chapter” reads:

Having regard to the underlying public policy objectives of national systems, the Parties recognise the need to:

  • promote innovation and creativity;
  • facilitate the diffusion of information, knowledge, technology, culture and the arts; and
  • foster competition and open and efficient markets;

through their intellectual property systems, while respecting the principles of transparency and due process, and taking into account the interests of relevant stakeholders, including rights holders, service providers, users and the public [CL/CA propose; US/JP oppose; and acknowledging the importance of preserving the public domain.]

It is disappointing that the United States would oppose language acknowledging the importance of preserving the public domain, which provides a storehouse of raw materials from which individuals can draw from to learn and create new ideas or works. The public domain is essential in fostering new creativity and advancing knowledge.

Proportionality in Enforcement

While this analysis does not cover the section on enforcement in detail, there is one significant positive improvement from previous texts. Under the general enforcement provisions, there is new text that appears to be agreed to language that is replicated from the text of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) and would require parties to “take into account the need for proportionality between the seriousness of the intellectual property infringement, and the applicable remedies and penalties, as well as the interests of third parties.” Inclusion of this language is a welcome improvement to the text of the enforcement section.


Overall, the text of the copyright section as well as some other key provisions reflect improvements over the initial intellectual property chapter proposed by the United States in February 2011. The section on technological protection measures no longer limits the limitations and exceptions to a closed list and does not impose a three-year rulemaking process. It would allow for permanent limitations and exceptions to anti-circumvention provisions. Additionally, the text shows greater flexibility with respect to ISPs and appears much less complicated than it initially did. Furthermore, the current text reflects agreement on positive language with respect to limitations and exceptions and a reference to the Marrakesh Treaty has been included. The removal of the formalities language that appeared in last year’s text is also a welcome improvement. General provisions and enforcement language has also seen improvements.

While there have been improvements in the text, there are still concerning elements, the biggest of which is the potential for locking-in current lengthy and excessive copyright terms as well as the possibility of even requiring further extension to life plus 100 years. Additionally, the requirement that circumvention of a technological protection measure be independent from copyright infringement is illogical and prevents circumvention for legitimate, non-infringing purposes.  Finally, the obligation to achieve balance through exceptions and limitations should be made mandatory.

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More than 90 Organizations and Institutions Call for Administration Policy on Open Educational Resources

On August 4, 2015, ARL joined more than 90 organizations and institutions wrote to President Obama calling for a policy to ensure that federally funded educational materials “are made available to the public as Open Educational Resources to freely use, share and build upon.”


The letter discusses the impact of open educational resources (OER) and points to several examples where the use of OER has resulted in significant cost savings, including Washington State’s Open Course Library program that has saved students more than $5.5 million.  It also points out that “[e]merging evidence in both K-12 and higher education has begun to demonstrate that students using Open Educational Resources have the same or better academic outcomes than peers using traditional materials.”


The letter recommends:

To achieve these goals, Administration policy on access to federally funded educational materials should direct the agencies to adhere to these core principles:

1.  A broad definition of educational materials. The educational, training, and instructional materials covered by the Order should include any unclassified information resource created, in whole or in part, with Federal funds designed to educate, instruct, train or inform. At the core, these would include learning materials, professional development resources and job training materials, but recipients of Federal funds create many other informational resources concerning, for example, public health, the environment, or energy that could be adapted for educational use if these were made freely available over the Internet under terms that permitted such adaptation.

2.  Free access through the internet. Any covered information should be freely accessible through the Internet if in digital form.

3.  Conditions that enable reuse. To maximize the value of these informational resources created with public funds, it is essential that recipients of Federal funds agree as a term and condition of such funding that they grant to the public broad copyright permission to reuse and adapt these materials for any purpose so long as the creator and the agency receive appropriate attribution.[6]

4.  Prompt implementation. Agencies should be required to implement this policy in no more than 12 months. This action is well within the purview of existing procurement law and does not require notice and comment.

5.  Reporting to OSTP.  Agencies should report their progress and results to the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

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Mexico Ratifies Marrakesh Treaty

On Wednesday, July 29, 2015, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) announced that Mexico ratified the Marrakesh Treaty.  The Marrakesh Treaty sets forth minimum standards for limitations and exceptions to facilitate access to accessible format works.  It would also permit cross-border sharing of these accessible formats, allowing countries to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts and resources in the creation of these accessible works.  Additionally, the Treaty would facilitate importation of works created in other languages.

With Mexico’s ratification as well as recent news of Mongolia’s ratification, the Marrakesh Treaty is now halfway to the 20 necessary ratifications to enter into force.  Countries previously ratifying the treaty include Argentina, El Salvador, India, Mali, Mongolia, Paraguay,Singapore, the United Arab Emirates and Uruguay.

Bill C-65 in Canada was introduced in June in preparation for accession to the Marrakesh Treaty.  While the United States signed the Treaty in October 2013, signaling an intention to ratify, the Obama Administration has not yet sent the Treaty to the US Senate for ratification.

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On the 25th Anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act, ARL Urges Swift Ratification of Marrakesh Treaty

On Sunday, July 26, 2015, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) celebrated its 25th anniversary.  The ADA, authored and sponsored by Senator Tom Harkin (D-IA) and passed with strong bi-partisan support, prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability including with respect to education and employment.  The ADA covers a wide range of disabilities and ensures that the civil rights of those with disabilities are protected.  This landmark piece of legislation represented world leadership in the area of promoting the rights of those with disabilities.

ARL has long supported the ADA and efforts to improve accessibility.  Those who are visually impaired or hearing impaired, for example, may face significant obstacles in attaining access to information or culture.  Those with physical disabilities may face limitations in accessing physical spaces.  The ADA helps to promote greater accessibility and protect the rights of those with disabilities.

As the United States celebrates this landmark piece of legislation and the many successes that the ADA has produced, continued efforts are needed to promote the rights of those with disabilities. The United States has a clear and concrete way to improve the rights of the print disabled by improving access to improving access to accessible format works.

In July 2013, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) concluded a diplomatic conference resulting in the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Those Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled. The Marrakesh Treaty creates minimum standards for copyright limitations and exceptions for the creation and distribution of accessible formats and allows for the cross-border exchange of these formats. The cross-border exchange is a critical feature and could greatly alleviate what is known as the “book famine,” a situation in which the National Federation for the Blind estimates that no more than 5 percent of published works are created in an accessible format. The ability to import works from other English speaking countries would aid in growing the collection of accessible format works in the United States and avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts in the creation of these formats. Perhaps of even greater benefit would be the ability to import works in other languages for those in the United States who do not speak English as a first language, such as large populations of Spanish, French, Chinese, Russian, German, Italian, Korean or Vietnamese speaking individuals. It would also benefit those who are learning foreign languages. Significantly, the treaty would allow those in developing countries, which generally have an even smaller number of accessible formats available, to import works from the relatively larger collections in the United States and elsewhere.

In order for the Marrakesh Treaty to enter into force, twenty countries must ratify or accede to the treaty. Currently, nine countries – Argentina, El Salvador, India, Mali, Mongolia, Paraguay, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates and Uruguay – have ratified and eleven more are needed.

The United States signed the Marrakesh Treaty in October 2013, signaling support for and an intention to ratify the treaty, but the Obama Administration has not yet sent the treaty to the US Senate for ratification. The United States should show leadership and be one of the first twenty countries to ratify the treaty. While the ADA has been a great success and 25 years of ensuring the civil rights of those with disabilities is a moment for celebration, more can still be done to improve the lives of those with disabilities.

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Coalition Asks President Obama to Pledge to Veto Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA)

Congress is currently considering the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 (CISA, S. 754), a bill that has serious implications for privacy and civil liberties.  While the bill purportedly is designed to strengthen cybersecurity, it contains significant flaws.  On Monday, July 27, ARL joined a coalition of organizations and security experts in sending a letter to President Obama asking for a pledge to veto CISA due to these concerns:

  • CISA fails to protect personal information.  CISA allows the sharing of vast amounts of personal data to be shared with government agencies.  It allows the sharing of personal and identifying information as a default measure.
  • CISA allows the use of information in investigations unrelated to cybersecurity.  CISA also allows for governments to use cyber threat indicators to investigate a wide range of crimes, including those that are not related to cybersecurity, such as robbery, arson, or trade secret violations.
  • CISA fails to maintain civilian control of domestic cybersecurity.  CISA would permit companies that operate in the civilian sector to share cyber threat indicators with any agency of the federal government, raising serious privacy concerns.
  • CISA permits countermeasures that could damage networks.  CISA would allow companies to deploy “defensive measures” or “countermeasures” that could damage networks that belong to innocent bystanders, even when they would otherwise be illegal under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
  • CISA raises additional transparency concerns.  CISA would create a new exemption to the existing list of nine exemptions under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).


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Library Copyright Alliance Responds to Copyright Office Inquiry on Visual Works

The Library Copyright Alliance filed a response to the U.S. Copyright Office’s Notice of Inquiry on Copyright Protection for Certain Visual Works, focusing largely on the importance of fair use and the detrimental effects of the current lengthy copyright term in the United States.

The response opens by pointing out,

In the past, the difficulty of identifying or locating the owners of the copyrights in visual works was a significant challenge for libraries.  Visual works are particularly susceptible to “orphaning” and often there is ambiguity in their copyright ownership.  This orphan work problem had a chilling effect on libraries interested in important preservation and archival uses of visual works.  It also impeded the use of collections of visual works for teaching and classroom use.  Indeed, the orphan work challenge prompted LCA to strongly support enactment of the Shawn Bentley Orphan Works Act in 2008.  However, significant changes int he copyright landscape since then convince us that libraries no longer need legislative reform in order to make appropriate uses of “orphaned” visual works in their collections.

The response then discusses the changed landscape, explaining that fair use is less uncertain today with a number of cases that have clarified the scope of this important doctrine.  Additionally, codes of best practices have guided the use of digitization and making available of special collections and archives, including for orphan works.The fact that injunctions are less likely and mass digitization is more common also promote greater comfort in using orphan works.

The statement then notes that the orphan works problem is largely a result of the current copyright term in the United States that “is already unacceptably long, limiting access to visual works that should be in the public domain.”  While not discussed in this response, it is worth noting that what is being called the last round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a large regional trade agreement in the Asia-Pacific region that currently has twelve negotiating parties, copyright term will be an issue for discussion.  Leaked text has revealed efforts by the United States to push for all parties to the TPP to adopt the lengthy term of life of the author plus 70 years, despite opposition to the imposition of copyright term extension.

The Copyright Office has extended its comment deadline to October 1, so there is still time to submit a response to the notice of inquiry.

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Mongolia Ratifies Marrakesh Treaty for the Blind; 11 More Needed for Entry Into Force

Mongolia’s Parliament has ratified the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled.  The Marrakesh Treaty now has a total of nine ratifications or accessions* and eleven more are needed for it to enter into force.  Countries that have previously ratified or acceded to the Marrakesh Treaty include: Argentina, El Salvador, India, Mali, Paraguay, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates and Uruguay.

The Marrakesh Treaty sets forth minimum standards for limitations and exceptions to facilitate access to accessible format works.  It would also permit cross-border sharing of these accessible formats, allowing countries to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts and resources in the creation of these accessible works.  Additionally, the Treaty would facilitate importation of works created in other languages.

The United States, which signed the treaty on October 2, 2013, should ratify the treaty to help end the “book famine” where only a small fraction of books, estimated by the National Federation of the Blind at no more than five percent, are created in accessible format.  While the United States has robust limitations and exceptions to allow for the creation and distribution of accessible format works, many countries, particularly those in the developing world, do not and their collections of accessible formats are even smaller than in the United States.  Additionally, persons with print disabilities in the United States would benefit from ratification, not only from the ability to import works from other English-speaking countries, but also because persons who speak other languages or are learning new languages — for example, Spanish, French, Russian or Chinese — would be able to import works in these languages from other countries.  The Administration has reportedly been working on its ratification package, but the package has not yet been sent to Congress.

Canada recently introduced a bill to amend its copyright law in preparation for accession to the Marrakesh Treaty.  The amendments would remove the restriction against creation of a large print book, allow broader export and make changes to the exception permitting circumvention of technological protection measures.  Passing this bill would be the first step toward accession for Canada.

A recent IP-Watch story quoting Michelle Woods from the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) indicated that the twenty total ratifications needed for entry into force could potentially take place later this year, meaning that the Marrakesh Treaty would enter into force in early 2016 (the treaty will enter into force three months after the twentieth ratification).  With eighty signatories to the Marrakesh Treaty, as well as numerous countries that have indicated that efforts are underway to accede to the treaty, hopefully more countries swiftly ratify so that the treaty can enter into force and alleviate the book famine.

*Countries that signed the Marrakesh Treaty during the one-year period in which it was open for signature must ratify the treaty.  Ratification is a two-step process where a country will sign the treaty, signaling that it agrees with the treaty and intends to ratify.  While a signature does not create a binding legal obligation and does not commit a country to ratification, it obliges the country to not commit acts that would undermine the treaty’s objective and purpose.  Countries that did not sign the Marrakesh Treaty can become a party to the treaty through accession, a one-step ratification.  
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ARL Joins Amicus Brief in Mavrix Photographs v. LiveJournal

On June 22, 2015, ARL joined an amicus brief of the Computer & Communications Industry Association, the American Library Association, the Association of College and Research Libraries and the Electronic Frontier Foundation in the case Mavrix Photographs v. LiveJournal, currently pending in the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, supporting the respondent, LiveJournal.

The case involves a LiveJournal blog, Oh No They Didn’t!, a community blog involving reader submissions about celebrity gossip and pop culture.  These submissions include celebrity photos, including sets of photos from Mavrix.  Mavrix sued LiveJournal (without first sending any takedown notices) and LiveJournal responded by removing the photos and terminating two users as repeat infringers.  In the district court, LiveJournal prevailed under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) safe harbor rules because it did not have actual knowledge of infringement, nor did it have “red flag” knowledge of infringement (that LiveJournal should have known).  Mavrix appealed the case to the Ninth Circuit.

The amicus brief points out the importance of the DMCA safe harbors for the amici parties, including for libraries specifically:

The DMCA safe harbors have also been extremely helpful to the library amici in fulfilling their mission of providing their users with access to information.  Libraries act as “service providers” within the meaning of 17 U.S.C. 512(k)(1)(A).  Libraries are the only source for real Internet connectivity and Internet-ready computer terminals for many Americans . . . The Section 512(a) safe harbor for “mere conduits” has enabled libraries to provide Internet access without the specter of liability for onerous copyright damages because of infringing user activity.

Libraries also operate websites that host user-generated content and prepare directories that link users to other websites.  The safe harbors in Section 512(c) and (d) shelter libraries from liability for infringing activity by third parties.  Any new restrictions on the availability of the DMCA safe harbors could have an adverse effect on the ability of libraries to deliver a critical service to underserved and other user communities.

The brief points out that that while service providers do not have an obligation to look through user-submitted content for infringements, the DMCA also does not discourage monitoring. Many service providers review content for illegal or objectionable material that violates the terms of service agreements.  Such moderation does not result in the loss of safe harbor under Section 512(c) which addresses safe harbors for “Information Residing on Systems or Networks At Direction of Users.”

The brief also notes that, absent actual knowledge of infringement, “red flag” knowledge is a high bar.  It notes that just because a user submits content, such as a photograph, that exists elsewhere online does not constitute a “red flag” that the content is infringing.  Additionally, “Holding online service providers unexpectedly liable for the acts of their users, in contrast to the legal clarity Congress deliberately and presciently provided in Section 512, would be deleterious not only to Internet commerce, but also to free speech online.”  The full brief is available for download here.

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